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Soil Contamination
question:soil

A soil contaminant is an element (also known as ‘heavy metals’ or inorganic contaminants, e.g. lead) or a chemical (also known as ‘organics’, e.g. diesel oil) present in the soil at a level that poses health risks to plant, animal or human health. Common soil contaminants include PCBs, PAHs, petroleum products, heavy metals and pesticides. BACKGROUNDER: SOIL TESTING FOR CONTAMINANTS ### Subscribe [Follow the soil topic](/subscribe/tag/soil) to get updates about soil! ## On this page: - [Questions people are asking related to soil ](https://publiclab.org/wiki/soil#Questions+people+are+asking+related+to+soil) - [Information on soil contamination](https://publiclab.org/wiki/soil#Information+on+soil+contamination) - [Activities for understanding your soil](https://publiclab.org/wiki/soil#Activities+for+understanding+your+soil) **** ### Questions people are asking related to soil [questions:soil] ### Information on soil contamination **Where does soil contamination come from? ** _We can be exposed to contaminants through the soil through:_ - **skin contact**: dermal exposure-e.g. pesticides - ** inhalation**: breathing in dust- e.g. asbestos, lead; and/or contaminants that vaporize from soil-e.g. benzene - **ingestion**: eating of dust and soil through hand-to-mouth and to a lesser extent through eating foods grown in contaminated soil as some can uptake heavy metals [![exposure_routes.jpg](/i/29974)](/i/29974) With exposure to any contaminant, the likelihood that health effects will occur depends on how harmful or toxic the contaminant is to humans, how much you are exposed to, and for how long and often you are exposed. Contaminants in soils can come from historical industrial activity, past and present land use, nearness to pollution sources (i.e. a major road, a coal plant) and natural disasters. _Contaminants can end up in your soil through:_ - the **air **(from dust & exhaust) - **water** (from rain & groundwater & runoff from a nearby site) - **direct deposition** (from on site (e.g. Pesticide application, burning garbage, or nearby polluters). [![incinerator_emissions.jpg](/i/29973)](/i/29973) **Why test the soil for contaminants?** People test their soil for contaminants for a range of reasons: - To see if the soil is safe to grow food in and/or reduce risk of exposure to contaminants through existing or future farms and gardens. - To see whether contaminants may have been or are being deposited on your site through runoff (water) or air from nearby busy roads or polluting industries. - To see what the contaminants may have been left behind on the soil after a natural disaster such as flooding or fire, or a chemical spill. - To see whether remediation efforts are working. Also see this great overview by [Toxics Action Center](https://toxicsaction.org/resources/statistics-for-action/soil-water-testing/) **** ### Common Soil Contaminants to be aware of: #### Heavy metals Heavy metals are those elements which are toxic to humans at certain concentrations, including: - arsenic - copper - lead - mercury - nickel - chromium - cadmium - zinc - aluminum - manganese - barium - molybdenum [![heavy-metals-t-shirt.jpg](/i/29972)](/i/29972) Some of them, like zinc and copper, are necessary or beneficial to living organisms in small concentrations but are toxic above a certain concentration; others, like lead, cadmium and mercury, serve no known biological function and are always toxic. Heavy metals are naturally occurring, found in rocks, soil systems and bedrock, and in some places a certain metal may be naturally present in higher concentrations (such as arsenic in New York State). The majority of heavy metal contamination arises from human activity– metal mining and smelting, agrochemical fertilizers and pesticides, sewage sludge, oil and gas operations and fossil fuel burning, improper waste disposal, and fill used in residential development. Unlike organic contaminants, heavy metals cannot be broken down, so the they keep building up in soils. But their characteristics may change so that they can be more or less easily taken up by plants or animals. #### Organic Chemicals Organic contaminants are carbon-based, meaning they are derived or manufactured from something that was once alive, for example, oil and gasoline, which is the remains of plant and animal matter that was compressed for millions of years, then pumped out of the earth and processed. Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH’s) and other petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants, solvents like trichloroethylene (TCE), dioxins, chemical pesticides, and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB’s) are a few organic contaminants of note. They can be present in soils, particularly on or near historical or present-day oil and gas industry, auto and machine repair shops, old or leaky oil tanks, busy roads or highways, landfills and dumps, beneath electrical stations and wires, and places where there were building fires or demolished buildings. #### Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons PAH’s are a byproduct of incomplete combustion, and are released when fossil fuels are burnt. They are common in soils along busy roads due to vehicle exhaust, and are associated with coal burning power plants, forest fires, and road sealants. Other sources of PAHs include wood burning stoves and oil spills. There are more than 15 different types of PAH’s. Some PAHs are known to be cancer-causing, or carcinogenic. They have also been associated with respiratory illnesses. In soils, PAHs are likely to stick tightly to soil and organic matter particles; though certain PAHs move through soil to contaminate underground water or volatilize into the air. [![PAH-Collage-2.jpg](/i/29971)](/i/29971) #### Poly Chlorinated Bisphenols Though they were banned in 1979, they are still present in the environment because they are highly persistent (do not readily break down) and can leak from landfills where they have been disposed of and from products that were made before the ban. They were used broadly in the electrical and building industr[](null)ies, and so are common in soils beneath electrical transformers and capacitators, flooded areas, and soils where buildings have been demolished. Since they don’t really break down, and bind to fats, they end up in our water and in our fish and seafood. So it’s especially important to know if they are present in places where people fish! [![4-PCBs-Fish-Graphic-6.09.png](/i/29970)](/i/29970) **You can read more about each specific contaminant through the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry’s 2 page fact sheets, called Tox FAQ’s: [https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaqs/index.asp ]** ### Activities for understanding your soil [activities:soil] ### Current Challenges: Several areas for potential development on soil testing and monitoring work include: - Find and share information on way to biologically test for soil contaminants that's analogous to macro-invertebrate testing for water. Possibly soil microscopic life? Also known as bio-assays. Earthworms are known to be pretty good indicators of toxicity but more info and experimentation is needed so that this could be applied by communities. - Identifying ways to reduce lab cost for sampling that requires lab testing (for eg., mass spectrometry for validity and reliable data). Partnering with university labs' is one way, or advocating for agriculture extension offices to provide subsidized testing. Do you have other ideas? - Play with the DIY spectrometer and build up a database to compare with for each toxic metal and organic contaminant at different concentrations. Create a color chart based on the database with many replicates (people trying it out) to compare the colors shown from reaction with each metal and contaminant of concern. - Figure out which reagents are effective for DIY colorimetric /spectrophotometric tests for soil contamination, and how to produce them. ...


Author Comment Last activity Moderation
liz "Thank you @joyofsoy! @CherokeeConcernedCitizens, what other questions are you wondering about? Sending you good luck! " | Read more » almost 2 years ago
joyofsoy "Not sure if you've seen some resources that were posted here: https://publiclab.org/n/18505 From that page: If you are you trying to get baseline ..." | Read more » almost 2 years ago
kgradow1 "Hi Stevie! I'd like to link this on the bucket project page, would you be willing to add the tag bucket-monitor? " | Read more » about 2 years ago
milwaukeeconcrete "Wow what great resources on soil testing! I run a local concrete company and honestly you'd be surprised how many times we need to do some form of ..." | Read more » about 2 years ago
Cyberrod "A sampler link this would probably do it. https://www.ams-samplers.com/40-plated-one-piece-step-probe.html But if your looking for something cheap..." | Read more » over 2 years ago
mimiss " @mimiss has marked @jeanell873 as a co-author. " | Read more » over 2 years ago
JSummers " You could get a local lab to test for metals using atomic absorption or atomic emission. You would have to look up the best technique for the met..." | Read more » almost 3 years ago
stevie " There's a community who lives just off or, nearly under the overpass- as in, they look directly up at it at probably an 85 degree angle, so childr..." | Read more » about 3 years ago
DanielleS " Building on the comment about lead (Pb), other metals such as Cadmium and Zinc are common alongside roads, and especially PAH's (polycyclic aromat..." | Read more » about 3 years ago
ryangaia "Lead (Pb) It is from brake dust and other particulates as most cars are worn down on freeways. Its not in Fuel anymore, but legacy Pb from fuel may..." | Read more » about 3 years ago
nandkishorbarve1983 " Here we are with Top Buddha Quotes Images which will help many of us to change our lives. Download Free the perfect buddha quote pictures. " | Read more » about 3 years ago
stevie " Hi! Check out some of the activities and resources on the soil page now that @DanielleS has been working on https://publiclab.org/wiki/soil#Activ..." | Read more » about 3 years ago
Ag8n " Don't know exactly how you want the spreadsheet fille d in on edxrf. I have used it extensively, in an r&d environment. I've only used a han..." | Read more » about 3 years ago
empirejeniffer37 " I think about it is most required for making more on this get engaged affordable seo " | Read more » over 3 years ago
eustatic "I posted a note here, let's see if i can find test results. here photos, there was oil pipe cleaning sludge, along with biogenic oils. the chemica..." | Read more » over 3 years ago
eustatic " Barium (metals) and Radium 226 (TENORM) are big indicators in production waste. Oils, Diesels, there are many fractions to test for, unless you a..." | Read more » over 3 years ago
Bronwen "Thanks so much for sharing these links! We're working on expanding our resources for soil sampling, but you might be interested in some of the work..." | Read more » over 3 years ago
jjcreedon " @dusjagr Hi, my name Jackie (from Tonawanda, NY). I checked out your work, very cool! We have done quite a lot of work using citizen science (in p..." | Read more » over 3 years ago
xose "Nice!!! Thanks Marc! " | Read more » over 3 years ago
liz "Here's a permalink to the PDF on our site: ee-soilsampling-sop-env-3-13.pdf " | Read more » over 4 years ago
gretchengehrke "Here's a great resource for soil sampling. Section 8.3.2 gives a good start for a step-by-step protocol for surface soil sampling. Table 8.2 is sup..." | Read more » over 4 years ago
gretchengehrke "Table 8.2 in that doc is particularly useful. " | Read more » over 4 years ago
gretchengehrke "Here is a great reference document that helps parse out some different types of sampling for different study designs, depths of samples, etc. We co..." | Read more » over 4 years ago
gretchengehrke "Hi @bbutler, How did this turn out? Did you get it tested? Another thought is to go to a local state public health laboratory (general info about p..." | Read more » over 4 years ago