Small airborne particles can become lodged in the lungs, and so regulations are especially concerned with respirable particulate matter, abbreviated as PM. Common regulatory categories of PM are PM10 and PM2.5; the numbers indicate the median diameter of collected particles in microns (millionths of a meter).
US federal PM regulations are technology-based regulations. Categories of particle pollution are defined by the type of particles captured in specific machines operated according to official guidelines, known as Federal Reference Methods (FRMs). All other measurements are judged in correspondence to FRMs.
The intent of technology-based regulation is to create data that is comparable from region to region and across long periods of time by referencing everything back to a single technique. However, technology-based regulation also restricts regulatory judgements to data collected with tools that have been approved by federal regulators. Regardless of the demonstrated correspondence between a particle monitoring tool and Federal Reference Methods, data may be rejected if collected with a device that isn't specifically written into federal regulations. Examples, include the case Air Alliance Houston's rejected data, and [Chippewa Valley Concerned Citizens' mixed success in using DIY monitoring to compel FRM-grade monitoring.] @GretchenGehrke @Liz @Stevie throw a better link in here than my note?
Understanding technology-based regulation of particulate matter will assist in strategically moving towards regulatory judgements against polluters, either with particle monitoring tools or other organizing strategies.
Pollutants and Indicators: confusion about PM
PM10 is often described as the fraction of airborne particles that are less than or equal to 10μm. PM2.5 as the fraction less than or equal to 2.5μm. PM10-2.5 Is described as the 'coarse' fraction of airborne particles. PM2.5 is described as the 'fine' fraction. While these conventions are used in public materials by both the EPA and CDC as well as the federal Air Quality Index, they are simplistic explanations that can be misleading.
PM is an standardized indicator of particle pollution not particle pollution itself. All measurement tools have limits, and sometimes pollutants of concern can't be measured directly or can only be measured incompletely. When environmental scientists rely on incomplete or indirect measurements that indicate the presence of a pollutant, they call these measurements indicators.
- PM10 is an indicator of respirable particles
- PM2.5 is an indicator of fine respirable particles that are hardest to clear from the lungs.
- PM10-2.5 subtracts PM2.5 from PM10 to calculate the coarse fraction of respirable particles.
As shown in the figure above, although an indicator of fine particles, PM2.5 mostly captures the smallest range of coarse particles.
(citation: EPA/600/P-95/001aF, 3-13).
The Federal Reference Methods:
Technology-based regulation means that PM10 and PM2.5 are defined as the output of specific machines referred to as Federal Reference Methods (FRM). The federal regulations themselves have exacting diagrams of FRM construction.
EPA monitoring site in Houston, TX with PM2.5 monitor (left) and Total Suspended Particles sampler (right).
The FRM collects particles with with a distributed size range, with 50% of particles larger than the μm and 50% below the cut point. This distribution is skewed, however, capturing a greater range of particles above the cut point captured than below it. The rate at which the collection drops off above the cut point is referred to as the sharpness of the cut point.
FRMs collect particles for 24-hours onto a pre-weighed filter. The filter is then taken to a lab and weighed again to determine the weight of the particulate matter. This process of weighing is called gravimetric analysis . By dividing the weight of the PM by the volume of air pulled through the FRM, PM concentrations are calculated and expressed in micrograms per cubic meter (μm/m3).
FRM consists of a stack of four components: an inlet impactor, screen, and filter, and pump.
Particle Size: real particles & idealized particles
Aerodynamic Diameter By diameter, the literature means "mass median aerodynamic diameter" which is a way of saying particles that fall through the air at the same rate as a perfect sphere of 10μm.
Regulatory Judgements: NAAQS
Calculating Correspondence with FRM
Federal Equivalent Methods
The FEMs for PM utilize detectors capable of real time reporting. The air sample volume is usually determined by air flow rate and duration akin to the FRM. However, the mass may be measured by the beta ray attenuation method (BAM) or tapered element oscillation method (TEOM).
The complete list of approved instruments for NAAQS evaluating is provided on the EPA Ambient Monitoring Technology Information Center (AMTIC) web site
The ‘action level’ for PM10 is an annual mean of 50μg/m3, assuming 10%, or 5μg/m3 silica. Research suggests that 1 in 300 people exposed to these levels will develop silicosis, while non-occupatial exposure of ~15μg/m3 of PM10 is correlated with significant increases in silicosis.
There are no specific national standards for respirable silica, although several states have implemented silica standards http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3683189/
MORE ON PM4
ignore. extra stuff for now:
Types of particle emissions
Researchers speak of two types of emissions that have a blurry line between them, 'process stream' emissions and 'fugitive emissions.' Process stream emissions are inherent to a process, like ash from a fire, and fugitive emissions are ancillary, like the dust kicked up bringing wood to a fire [[EPA 3-2] (http://ofmpub.epa.gov/eims/eimscomm.getfile?p_download_id=4608)].
Monitoring particle size
Particles of Concern
Silica For silica, particles smaller than 4μm are considered the most dangerous.
The family of chemicals that make up Particulate Matter are subdivided into the different regulated pollutants: