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So it can be more easily read here is the content from the document Kari attached:
Oil & Gas Related Hydrogen Sulfide Myths Debunked
Question 1: Is it true that if you properly cement geological layers high in H2S (Newburg) that this guarantees the natural gas being extracted at 3000-4000ft will have zero H2S?
Answer: No, absolutely not. The amount of H2S produced is a function of the H2S content in the produced gas in the strata/s that is/are produced. And, even if the intended to be produced gas has zero H2S (highly unlikely), H2S could be produced even if proper cement is present due to bad casing and/or casing connections/couplings. H2S is corrosive to steel.
Also, I don’t believe that anyone really actually knows just how good the cement is at any given point in a well. The cement job on any well is subject to a lot of variables. It could start with bad dry bulk cement to start with, I’ve seen bad cement brought to the well and used before anyone realized it had come from a bad batch. This was a quality control breakdown that was covered up after the cement was already in the hole and there was not any easy way to “fix” it. Even when the samples that are collected in the cups get hard, that still doesn’t tell you how good the cement in the hole really is.
A cement job is subject to a LOT of human error. I’ve seen botched jobs due to the cementer’s error that weren’t discovered until after they were long gone from the job. One particularly bad surface job was due to a large error in the displacement volume calculation by an overworked cement operator.
Even if a bond log indicates a good cement job, it doesn’t tell you how long even brand new casing will last if ANY of it is exposed to H2S. Also, I’ve seen 4-1/2” casing connections sent into the hole that were cross threaded, loose, galled and tight but with bad threads and 4 or 5 threads still showing above the collar when the joint was sent into the hole. I believe that there ARE real ways for H2S to get into the gas output of a well.
Something else that most people “not in the business” don’t know is that a Bainbridge type disaster could easily happen again simply because there are still some drillers and operators working in Ohio that would try to save a lot of money by trying to cover up a bad cement job, even when they know it could lead to a disaster AND because I believe that the “safeguards” that were put in place by the ODNR are not enforced.
Question 2: Is it true that zero H2S readings on commonly used meters may be incorrect?
Answer: Yes. There are many ways in which measurements of H2S in the air can be flawed. They include the following:
Faulty or un-calibrated meters.
Timing, making measurements at the wrong time when H2S concentrations are unusually low or high.
H2S being dissolved in water or water vapors. Below addresses this important aspect of erroneous measurements.
It is known that most measurement instruments intended for measurement of H2S in the air can only measure H2S when H2S is in the gaseous phase mixed in air. If the H2S is partially or all dissolved in water vapors, the instrument will make faulty and low readings. This fact has been verified with at least 3 manufacturers of instruments, ranging in prices up to $10,000 to $20,000.
This dissolution of H2S in water vapors is present especially when the air is calm or nearly calm and the temperature is cool -- at, near or below the dew point.
The dissolution of H2S in water vapors is aggravated when an Amine Gas plant treats the acid gas stream with a water bubbler and the vented gasses are vented. These vented gasses already contain conditions wherein the H2S is dissolved in water vapor or steam.
Under the conditions amplified above, one can make very low measurements of H2S with a standard meter or instrument; but, when the body breathes in the subject gases, the human body quickly warms the gasses (body temperature is 98.6 F.) so that the H2S quickly comes out of solution and the lungs ingest the H2S which was not measured. The eyes likewise can burn. The body “sees” the H2S and the meter missed it!
There are methods known to the author which largely eliminates this problem of dissolved H2S.
Lionel J. Milberger
Lionel holds a Bachelor of Science and a Masters degree from Texas A&M University. He is an inventor on 60 US Patents, along with numerous foreign patents; and, he has authored many published technical reports and papers. He is a past member of the ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers) and the MTS (Marine Technology Society). Over the last 35+ years, he has held several Research, Engineering and Management positions in Oil & Gas and in Universities.
James has 23 years experience drilling oil & gas wells in Ohio and Pennsylvania. For six years he was a drilling rig manager. He has a reputation of excellent performance and integrity in the industry and among clients. Clients often requested that he be assigned when they returned to his employer for services.
Presentation and contributions by: Kari Matsko. Ohio.
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