Public Lab Wiki documentation



Infragram

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The Infragram project brings together a range of different efforts to make Do-It-Yourself plant health comparisons possible with infrared photography.

This project was made possible with support from Google and the AREN Project at NASA.

Uses

Vineyards, large farms, and NASA all use near-infrared photography for assessment, usually by mounting expensive sensors on airplanes and satellites. Infrared analysis is used for a variety of things, but most focus on assessing plant health, such as:

Screenshot_2017-10-18_at_11.59.57_AM.png

Just as cell phone video has become instrumental in accountability today, we aim to democratize and improve reporting about environmental impacts.


Getting started

To start to do your own infrared analysis project, you'll need:

  1. Photos: A way to take near-infrared photos AND matching regular visible light photos from the same angle (in a single camera or two matched cameras)
  2. A question you'd like to answer -- look through these templates for how to design your analysis
  3. Software for processing and analysing your photos
  4. Analysis -- tips and support to interpret and understand what your images are telling you

How it works

Background

In 2014, we launched an early version of this project on Kickstarter, and the video is a good overview of the project, although we've come a long way since:

The Infragram Kickstarter video, a great introduction to the project.


Infragram starter kits

The Public Lab Store offers a range of Do-It-Yourself kits to convert cameras for infrared photography, as well as ready-made cameras like the Infragram Point & Shoot camera:

Get a kit to start


Comparing plant health

An important limitation of most DIY techniques is that we are using uncalibrated cameras, and so the analysis works best when we compare two vegetated areas under the same conditions (light, angle, time of day) rather than just take a photo of a single region. That is, the DIY approach is based on relative, or comparative, uses -- you can't learn a lot without a point of comparison.


An easy way to do a comparison is:

  1. compare two areas (with the same type of plants) within a single photograph
  2. compare two photographs with the same camera settings and lighting conditions (angle, brightness, color), of the same plants

[illustration]

Learn more at Comparing Plant Health


Software

Doing NDVI analysis on plants requires post-processing both infrared and visible images (or a combined image -- see Cameras) into a composite image, using the NDVI equation (or another like it). This can be done with a variety of software; see this page for more:

Infrared software


Troubleshooting

  • making sure your camera is working (color balance, exposure, light source)
  • what to compare against (see study design)
  • different lighting conditions or angles

Title Author Updated Likes Comments
Nothing yet on the topic "infragram-troubleshooting" -- be the first to post something!


(older content below)


Activities

Purpose Category Status Author Time Difficulty Replications
Getting started with infrared photography on Infragram.org - - @warren - - 3 replications: Try it »
Low cost NDVI analysis using RaspberryPi and PiNoIR - - @petter_mansson1 - - 0 replications: Try it »
Video tutorial: Creating false-color NDVI with aerial wetlands imagery - - @warren - - 0 replications: Try it »
Raspberry + NoIR cam + Sensors to detect water stress of the plants during their growing - - @LaPa - - 0 replications: Try it »
Conversion of 4k sport camera for NDVI analysis with UAVs - - @azaelb - - 1 replications: Try it »
Introducing the calibration plugin for ImageJ/Fiji - - @nedhorning - - 0 replications: Try it »
Set up a Raspberry Pi Camera with Pi Builder - - @warren - - 0 replications: Try it »
Mobius NDVI - - @cfastie - - 0 replications: Try it »
Mobius non-fish eye and small lifter wrapup - - @patcoyle - - 0 replications: Try it »
Getting started with the Infragram Point and Shoot - - @abdul 1hr medium 0 replications: Try it »
Creating Multispectral Imagery for California Beaches - - @MicheleTobias - - 0 replications: Try it »
Video tutorial: Creating infrared composites of aerial wetlands imagery - - @warren - - 0 replications: Try it »
Mobius IR conversion - - @cfastie - - 0 replications: Try it »
Use Image Sequencer for NDVI plant analysis with 2 images - - @warren - - 0 replications: Try it »
Install a filter or change the lens in a Mobius Action Cam - - @warren - - 0 replications: Try it »
Prototype: filter map tiles in real-time in a browser with ImageSequencer (NDVI Landsat) - - @warren - - 0 replications: Try it »
Eclectis: a week of civic science in Amsterdam North - - @warren - - 0 replications: Try it »
Pasture measurement using NIR camera - - @drkatnz - - 0 replications: Try it »
Mobius non-fish-eye lens conversion - - @patcoyle - - 0 replications: Try it »
Update firmware on the Mobius Action Cam - - @warren - - 0 replications: Try it »
Use Image Sequencer for NDVI plant analysis with a modified mini sport camera observe review-me @warren 15m easy 0 replications: Try it »
How to tell if my filter is a Rosco 19 - - @shinnen - - 0 replications: Try it »

Activities should include a materials list, costs and a step-by-step guide to construction with photos. Learn what makes a good activity here.

Getting started

So you have an Infragram camera, or a filter kit, and you want to start analyzing plant health? After this page, the first place to look for answers is Public Lab's infrared photography discussion list, which you can sign up for in the left-hand column. There are plenty of other DIY infrared photographers, from novices to experts, willing to offer advice and help troubleshoot.

Converting cameras

The question to start with is whether you can capture all the channels you need for your research question with a single converted camera or whether you should use a dual camera rig with one converted camera and one unconverted. That choice plays out in terms of what filter (blue or red) to use for converting your camera.

Check out this list of cameras, detailing how to convert some and collecting information on which cameras work and which don't:

Here's a link to a great video on converting a camera using PL's filter kit:

Please share your experiences and post additional cameras to this list!

White balance

We've learned that careful white balancing of your converted Infragram camera is essential for good NDVI images. Learn how in this short video and read in depth on the topic in research by Chris Fastie. There is also a wiki page on the subject at http://publiclab.org/wiki/infrablue-white-balance

Filters

Should you use a RED or BLUE filter?

Early research by Public Lab contributors led to a blue filter technique for making Infragram cameras. But recent research on PublicLab.org has shown that red filters work better -- and on a wider range of cameras. Blue filters did not work on most CMOS cameras, especially cheaper webcams. By the beginning of the new year the Filter Kits will ship with red filters -- specifically the Rosco #19 "Fire" filter as well as the blue filter #2007.

Coding Support

For those who use the webcam and have a Python interpreter, there are some image processing codes available at Python Webcam Codes.


Give or get help

Here are some resources to get help converting or using your Infragram camera. Keep in mind that we are a peer driven community and we encourage everyone to give as well as receive assistance and support!

Title Author Updated Likes Comments
Infrared camera @eduardo_gamosa over 1 year ago 0
Run infragram offiline (whitout online analysis) @elucasfreitas about 2 years ago 2
Why Red filter results are blurry compared to Blue filters? @shahdharam7 over 2 years ago 2
Can NOIR camera distinguise different types of leaf? @shahdharam7 over 2 years ago 3
NDVI image issues from GoPro 3+ Silver @jeffa_plain over 2 years ago 9
How generate NDVI images with Infragram? @henning_leonardo about 3 years ago 1
Why the color of Infragram picture is different from what I take with my Raspberry Pi using Picamera API @iman about 3 years ago 4
Is there any correlation between Infragram, IR and Thermographic images ? @dariusjack over 3 years ago 1
How to find the sweet spot for manual white balance settings using Pi NoIR and a blue filter with artificial (full spectrum) lighting @patalbright over 3 years ago 11
NDVI Image Captures Non-Plant Objects @velahs almost 4 years ago 4
Why we see red image when using blue filter? @wangmeising97 about 4 years ago 7
How should I modify Infragram NDVI settings for Raspberry Pi Noir orbital photos? @brendan_stanford about 4 years ago 9
Can I use a clear case with the Infragram pi camera? @mimiss about 4 years ago 0
Is there a way to convert an infrared video footage to NDVI? @sam14 about 4 years ago 2
Can I use the infragram.org for my thesis? Thanks! @tooooopher05 over 4 years ago 4
How can I make IR photos derived from various cutoff useful for creating NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) images? @lev29 over 4 years ago 7
How to do the white-balancing for the RED filter? @xmv79667 over 4 years ago 1
Feasibility-check: NDVI analysis of moss @zomb23 over 4 years ago 3
Bad NDVI Results from Pi NOIR with Blue Filter @nstarli over 4 years ago 6
How to design a camera for calculating ENDVI. @nickyshen0306 almost 5 years ago 5
Need help to reduce the Blue in mobius point and shoot camera @Muneeswaran almost 5 years ago 5
What is the working principle of Blue/Red filter @nickyshen0306 almost 5 years ago 2
How do I take root and hypocotyl pictures for plant without light influence @Xing almost 5 years ago 2
I just gotten my newly purchased Infragram Pi Camera, my pi.local is blank and pi.local/Cam keeps popping up message "Error in RaspiMJPEG" hence I do not get any live video feed. Anyone can help? @willieong almost 5 years ago 1

When describing your question or answer, please include details of the equipment and process you are using as described here for Infragram photos .

Also see our older FAQ here: https://publiclab.org/wiki/infragram-faq


Map

Where are people doing Infragram work? This map will show some projects and posts by location:


Background

The Infragram camera was originally developed by Public Lab contributors to assess damage to wetlands in the wake of the BP oil spill; but it's also a simple, easy-to-modify, open-source hardware and software tool that anyone who's curious about plant physiology and health can use. You can go back and read through much of this work by reading research notes tagged with 'near-infrared-camera' and the most recent work on the Infragram technique by looking for the tag 'infragram'.

dorn

Vineyards, large farms, and NASA all use near-infrared photography for assessment, usually by mounting expensive sensors on airplanes and satellites. Infragram brings this technology to average citizens, enabling them to monitor their environment through quantifiable, citizen-generated data.

kites

Just as photography was instrumental to the rise of credible print journalism, DIY data collection technologies like Infragram set out to democratize and improve reporting about environmental impacts. By creating a low-cost camera and working with farmers and environmental activists, we hope to explore grassroots uses for this kind of technology.

What exactly is an Infragram camera?

The Kickstarter project offered a few different versions:

DIY Filter Pack: This is just a piece of "superblue" filter which you can use to turn your webcam or cheap point-and-shoot into an infrared camera. The filter allows you to take an infrared photo in the "red" channel of your camera, and a visible image in the "blue" channel. The Public Lab kit comes with a white balance card and instructions on how install your filter -- it's pretty easy!
Infragram Webcam At one-twentieth the cost of normally priced consumer infrared cameras, this cheap but flexible device is designed for plugging directly into your laptop or integrating into other projects. It's also ideal for a Raspberry Pi, if you want to take it outdoors, do timelapse photography, or write scripts to control your camera. We're getting a company to fit 1000 standard webcams with infrablue filters, and shipping them as a bare circuit board with a USB cable - like an Arduino. You can make one of these yourself, although it seems that not all webcams work, so be aware!
Infragram Point & Shoot: This is a straightforward, if basic, point-and-shoot camera which we're getting a factory to pre-convert with infrablue filters: you can simply take photos as you normally would, then upload them to our free and open-source web app to quickly and easily get a variety of composite images and analyses (the site is currently in beta with minimal initial features). This isn't an SLR or even a particularly fully featured camera -- it likely won't have an LCD screen and may be "rebranded" with a Public Lab sticker -- but it's the new filter we've put inside which counts.

"The name "Infragram" comes from Infrared Photogrammetry, the use of photography to create spacialized and quantified data. When NASA started using this technique on the Landsat satellites in the 1970's and 80's, each camera was custom-built for the purpose. Now, consumer cameras are so advanced that even a five year old point and shoot can generate excellent data with nothing more than a change of the filters and calibration through the Infragram site."-- Mathew Lippincott, Public Lab

"We're excited that Public Laboratory is developing a low-cost infrared camera which will help us track the success of wetland restoration projects in the Gulf Region--as well as help us track pollution. The Gulf Restoration Network has been using the aerial monitoring techniques that Public Lab developed, so having the infrared camera available to put on the balloon and kite rig will only expand the applications of that technology as well as add value to airplane monitoring flights that help us watchdog the oil industry in the Gulf." -- Scott Eustis, M.S., Gulf Restoration Network

More information

The Public Lab community has been building up a knowledge base in DIY infrared imaging for years. To join in, check out these pages:

  • Infrared image processing, specifically how to represent information that we can't see as images that we can see: http://publiclab.org/wiki/ndvi
  • The history of the project -- the images below depict other prototypes that were created by our community over the years. If you are interested in the story of how this project got started, check out more early prototypes and experiments on this page: http://publiclab.org/wiki/near-infrared-camera-history.

dual

melange


Infragram instructions and graphics

Digital files for the filter pack envelope (including logo) and instructions:

infrablue-filter-envelope-color.pdf

infragram-instructions-0.3.pdf

infragram-instructions-back-0.2.pdf

Sketchup model for the "filter switch" graphic: filter-switch.skp

Datasheets

Datasheet for Infragram Webcam: infragram-webcam-new-old-diagram.pdf

Focal length of the camera:3.27mm. Chip sensor size for the camera: Sensor:ov2643,SIZE:1/4"

Spec_of_JDEPC-OV04_Ver_1.01.pdf

Module_XJDOEM-final_version-July_30-2013.xlsx

HK-7035AS-582-2-M7_Model_(95955).pdf