# Table of Contents

- Page ID
- 13253

This text covers descriptive statistics, including measures of central tendency, dispersion and position; elements of probability; inferential statistics including confidence intervals, hypothesis tests, two-population comparisons; correlation and regression; goodness of fit; analysis of variance; and applications in various fields. An introduction to the use of a computer software package to complete both descriptive and inferential statistics problems is included.

## 1: The Nature of Statistics

Included in this chapter are the basic ideas and words of probability and statistics. You will soon understand that statistics and probability work together. You will also learn how data are gathered and what "good" data can be distinguished from "bad."## 2: Frequency Distributions and Graphs

In this chapter, you will study numerical and graphical ways to describe and display your data. This area of statistics is called "Descriptive Statistics." You will learn how to calculate, and even more importantly, how to interpret these measurements and graphs.## 3: Data Description

In this chapter, you will study numerical and graphical ways to describe and display your data. This area of statistics is called "Descriptive Statistics." You will learn how to calculate, and even more importantly, how to interpret these measurements and graphs.## 4: Probability and Counting

Probability theory is concerned with probability, the analysis of random phenomena. The central objects of probability theory are random variables, stochastic processes, and events: mathematical abstractions of non-deterministic events or measured quantities that may either be single occurrences or evolve over time in an apparently random fashion.## 6: Continuous Random Variables and the Normal Distribution

Continuous random variables have many applications. Baseball batting averages, IQ scores, the length of time a long distance telephone call lasts, the amount of money a person carries, the length of time a computer chip lasts, and SAT scores are just a few. The field of reliability depends on a variety of continuous random variables.## 7: Confidence Intervals and Sample Size

In this chapter, you will learn to construct and interpret confidence intervals. You will also learn a new distribution, the Student's-t, and how it is used with these intervals. Throughout the chapter, it is important to keep in mind that the confidence interval is a random variable. It is the population parameter that is fixed.## 9: Inferences with Two Samples

You have learned to conduct hypothesis tests on single means and single proportions. You will expand upon that in this chapter. You will compare two means or two proportions to each other. To compare two means or two proportions, you work with two groups. The groups are classified either as independent or matched pairs.## 10: Correlation and Regression

Regression analysis is a statistical process for estimating the relationships among variables and includes many techniques for modeling and analyzing several variables. When the focus is on the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables.## 12: Nonparametric Statistics

Because distribution-free tests do not assume normality, they can be less susceptible to non-normality and extreme values. Therefore, they can be more powerful than the standard tests of means that assume normality.